Becoming a claimant in the small claims process means you must follow a number of rules to ensure your claim is dealt with legally. Before you start your claim through the court in your area it’s a good idea to read leaflet EX301: Making a Claim? Some Questions to Ask Yourself that is available at your local court building or available to download from the HMCS website.
When and How Should I Start My Claim?
Beginning the small claims process is called issuing a claim. You can obtain all the forms you need from any court, but it is now more efficient to make your claim online using the Money Claim website. You have two choices when you begin your claim. You can start a claim in the High Court, or the Royal Courts of Justice in London. The High Court is usually attached to your local County Court where most small claims are processed.
There are limits on the types of small claims that can be heard at certain courts. You can only use the High Court for instance if your claim is for more than £15,000 or for personal injury up to £50,000. Consult your lawyer before deciding which court would best suit your claim.
The court will give you a set of forms that you must complete. When you have done this, photocopy your form and ensure you:
Keep a Copy for Yourself: This is important as the defendant you are claiming against could dispute the information on your form and therefore your claim.
Send or Take a Copy to the Court: This copy will be used to process your claim as it moves through the small claims process
Send Copies to Each of the Defendants: The defendants must have a copy of the claim form completed in as much detail as possible. This will be accompanied by a response pack so they can decide how they want to move forward with the claim against them.
If at anytime you need help the small claims form it has accompanying notes to guide you. If you’re still having problems you can get free advice from the Community Legal Advice website or by calling them on 0845 345 4 345.
The Particulars of Your Claim
The most important part of your small claims form is the ‘particulars of claim’. This is where you give details about the claim you are making. You can also use this section of your form to give details of any interest you want to claim from the defendant.
Court fees and small claims
The small claims process isn’t free. You will see on your claim forms how much you will have to pay to the court to handle your claim. In certain circumstances you can avoid paying these fees.
If you are on Income Support or receive Child Tax Credit for instance could mean your claim would be free. Check with the court if you are not sure. Do this as early as you can because your fee will become payable when you submit your forms to the court for processing. More information is in leaflet EX106A: Court Fees - Do I have to Pay Them? available for download from the HMCS website.
The defendant doesn’t respond to my claim
The person you are claiming against will be sent your form and a pack of additional forms with which to respond. If your forms are returned the court will send you form N216 (Notice of returned document). Even though the defendant hasn’t responded to your claim, the small claims process will continue anyway as this is required by law to ensure justice to all claimants.
What if the defendant disputes my claim?
This can happen and the defendant will have been sent a form to use in their response pack if they feel your claim isn’t fair. They can dispute all or just part of your claim. If the defendant does dispute your claim be aware that you may have to pay additional costs. These could be for witnesses to appear in court on your behalf, or to have specialised reports completed to help support your claim.
Do I need a solicitor to help with my claim?
Unless your small claim is over £5,000 and is for damages or compensation you will usually not need a solicitor. Remember though, that even with a claim for under £5,000 or that isn’t for compensation or damages could mean you need a solicitor if the particulars of your claim are complex. You would have to meet the costs of this legal advice. Remember that you can save significant amounts of money and time for claims under £100,000 that involve no more than two defendants by using the online claim system Money Claim.
Prior to purchasing 2 kittens I asked the breeder to prove their health & was shown a certificate for each parent stating that they were clear of the illness PKD. Further down the line I discovered that the kittens both had PKD which can only be inherited- meaning the certificate shown before purchase must of been false. The breeder is now saying that she won’t refund me because she did not know that the bred cats had PKD and so had no intention to deceive. Is this suitable defence in the small claims court?
Catkins - 29-Mar-21 @ 12:52 PM
I am suing a builder for money to be retured for work not completed and he has played me and treatened me all the way through the process but when speaking with other people has been nice as anyything.He is now threatening to counterclaim against me unless i stop the claim.I have reported him to the police for fraud, trading standards etc and placed a review on the website he was on. He is relentless and I don't know what to do can anyone offer advice?
buckingham76 - 16-Nov-20 @ 4:04 PM
A Builder cannot hide behind a Ltd company unless this is made clear in the marketing and printed invoices. So check all available evidence b4 deciding who to claim against.
Also follow the correct pocedure. Citizens advice has excellent free advice and template letters.
Boudicca - 21-Feb-20 @ 1:43 PM
I paid a builder in cash and bank transfer (no receipt either!!), for badly done work. i now discover he is a Limited liability company. But I have no invoice from him and nothing that would have informed me he was a limited company. Who do I take to court, the sole trading individual or the limited company? Thanks.
Jay - 16-Feb-20 @ 4:15 PM
I am pursuing a small claim against a used car dealer under 2015 Consumer
Rights lelegislation.In May 2019 I sent him a pre-court letter with confirmed delivery.
He sent this back marked 'this is a residential address not a business address' .
A month later I sent him an e mail asking for his business address 'for court
purposes'. I did not receive a reply. I have his actual residential address, is this good enough for the Small Claims Court ? Rick
Rick - 22-Jan-20 @ 12:16 PM
Can I take a school or a teacher to the small claims court?
Long story short a school/ head teacher reported me to social services saying I had shakey hands and smelt of alcohol,I'm tee- total and shaky hands is a medical condition they also said my wife looked ( OUT OF IT ) my wife has M.S and was having a bad day . I would really appreciate any advice as tried to go through school complaints procedure but they refusing me to go before the board of governors. Please help!
Cc - 14-Jan-20 @ 12:54 PM
I used to run a small one man transport business, in March 2018 I left the truck I use for the business with a manufacturer approved garage in High Wycombe for one minor job to be carried out and a re-test, the truck is still there, I have lost all of my work, my business and it has also affected my health.
The garage at first appear to have forgotten about my truck, then kept asking for money to rectify faults that were not present when I first left the truck with them.
They informed me that the complete front brakes assembly needed to be replaced as it it did not work and when I informed them that the vehicle has had the rear brakes replaced and a roller brake test and a road test 36 hours before being left with them, I was told that a seized front brake would not be noticeable on a brake test or under normal use (so how did they discover it?)
They also told me that my batteries needed replacing as they were no good, this due to me fitting cheap batteries, the batteries were fitted new en-route to their garage and were I believe £160.00 plus each, cheap batteries are around £90.00 each, when this was pointed out, they said that they would put them on charge.
Over 100 litres of fuel has disappeared from the fuel tank whilst it has been in their keeping, they have lost all the paperwork for the vehicle, have reported numerous faults that were not present when it was dropped off to them and rectified all faults at the cost of hundreds of pounds at their own cost as a “Goodwill gesture”
They prepared themselves and put the vehicle through a test in December and it failed!!!
Then another in January which although it passed, it should not have as the Tachograph calibration was invalid and had failed the previous test.
This has cost me all the work that I had booked in for 2018, my savings, my health and my business, I can prove what I have said, they cannot!
I have been called a liar,conman, have been sworn at, insulted and laughter at and it appears that in the U.K. if you are treated like this by a garage, there is no recompense unless you have thousands in the bank and I don’t.
I can no longer work,I am now on benefits for the first time in 30 years.
I cannot even afford to visit my dying brother in Kent due to this scum.
Where is the justice in this country??
Citizens Advice are useless.
Trading Standards, appear to be funded by these businesses.
Pro Bono Solicitor, where?
I was asked if I owned property so that they could put a charge on in for their fees!!
Ruined - 12-Aug-19 @ 11:21 AM
I am the claimant and I have details of the court date. However, the defendant has moved house and keeps texting me for the court date. He has obviously not done a redirect or shown adequate responsibility in managing this situation. He new a court appearance was due.
I don't think it's my responsibility to let him know the court date. I will have to send him the documents upon which my claim is based which I intend to do by email prior to the court date or at least send to the address I have on record, but surely I don't have to let him know when it is do I?
Plus is it okay for me to send the information I have to the address I have for him - as it would be his responsibility to inform me of his new address I suspect and he is clearly choosing not to do that! I haven't responded to him thus far.
Tinytots - 6-Aug-19 @ 11:43 AM
Almost 5 yrs ago my Wife received a £80 Parking Notice from Excel Parking as a result of her parking on one of their car parks. Long story short, she did purchase a ticket (£1.50) but must have mistakenly entered the wrong registration number of her vehicle. This resulted in letter after letter from Solicitors representing Excel, to recover their charges etc. My Wife refuses to pay the £185 they now seek, because no-one was ever 'out of pocket' she paid for a parking ticket, but made a genuine and honest mistake re her regd number. Can anyone believe she has now received County Court papers in respect of the owing £185?
Her intention is to contest it to the end!
Any comments/views would be much appreciated.
Pierre - 23-Jun-19 @ 1:14 PM
I am a landlady who has been royally shafted by tenants.I have filled out my Small Claims Application form (N1) but the tenants refuse to provide a forwarding address.We have their email address and her work address. How do we apply for permission from the Court to serve the papers via work?
Thank you in advance for any help / advice offered, it will be gratefully received!
SAM - 26-May-19 @ 2:53 PM
I need some clarification on what the date of the court order is. I had a hearing on 19 december 2018 and the judge order the other party to file evidence within 7 days of the date of the court order. I would like to know that the date of this court order - is it 19 december 2018.Also when does the 7 days start from? is it seven days from the date of 18 december 2018 please ? Also is a court order meant to be on a piece of paper stating court orderor can it simply be added onto another letter eg hearing notice and not be titled court order? The court appear to have made a mistake and stated that the 7 days starts from the date or typing up the order (several weeks after 19 december 2018) and not 7 days from 18 december 2018.
If the court havemade a mistake then how do I get it corrected? Does it need to go to a judge?
I would be grateful for your help. Thanks
fiona - 18-Mar-19 @ 6:30 PM
I have recently had repairs done to my boat.
The engine mounts needed replaicing and two bolts drilled out of the engine block to refit engine leg to the engine.The engineer at the time said he could not get to the second bolt as the bulk head was only six inches from bolt thus no access, as he could not get the bolt out and believed the repair would possibly fail at any point, but on his report he said he did get both bolts out .
Two of the front bolts in the engine block sheered again (and i believe he only done 1 as he verbally told me)andboth engine mounts failed leaving in the same position and the quoted me £925 to take the engine out and remove the bolt as it was impossible to do while connected.
Yet his first report he said he done both bolts removed by lifting the engine but his second report sais he cant do it?
I paid an engineer to do the job and once the bolts were removed easily with a right handed attachment and new ones fitted the engine mounts were impossible to fit as mounts did not align with the boat frame. New adjustable ones were ordered and job done.
A : one bolt was removed and the leg left loose to accomodate the mount as it was 1/4inch out.
B: the mount was cut to make it look fitted as enginner 2 sugested
Overall it was impossible to fit engine mounts to the boatas they were misaligneddue to incorrect mounts, a 1/2 inch bolt cant go in a 1/4 inch hole hole. The fuel lines were damaged and leaking and the second engineer fixed everything by replacing costing me £462.
Mudyuppy - 11-Jan-19 @ 6:53 PM
My car was recently driven into (whilst parked) by a third party who admitted liability at the scene and offered to pay for the damages.
I advised my insurer who informed of the options.
Since then, the third party changed their mind and contacted their insurance provider to deal with it and I have not heard from them since in person.
My insurer is now dealing with the vehicle through a 'no fault service' whereby they attempt to repair the vehicle if possible and they recover the costs from the third party.
However, I do not have legal cover and the costs I am already incurring for things such as hours of phone calls, lost time, fuel to take the vehicle to garages to be looked at initially, costs for hire vehicle, not to mention the hassle and stress. (I was unable to access my sons pushchair in the boot of the vehicle for 4 days as the boot would not open) and my insurer has advised me that my premium will be increased next year as I am now a higher risk driver.
My insurer may repair the vehicle although it is already looking likely that it will be written off, and I have no doubt that I will not get the true value for it thus leaving me without a vehicle, and not enough money to replace with a like for like vehicle. My insurer will also charge me for administration on changing the vehicle on the policy and I also may incur a higher premium for the remainder.
I am trying to find out if I can take the third party to small claims court for these losses?
According to the .gov site I am required to write to the third party first and ask them to cover the costs before doing so.
Many thanks in advance.
Bobby - 9-Feb-17 @ 10:02 PM
I have a claim going through the small claims at the moment the defendant never replied to my letter or the first court letter it has now been referred to my local court, the defendant is now intimidating me through emails,what should I do
Lyn - 2-Dec-16 @ 8:51 AM
I issued a claim against someone using the online service. No response. I asked for a judgement by default, which I was awarded, no response. I waited 30 days, I was not paid. I took steps to instruct enforcement officers, who issued a writ. On the lunchtime before the writ expired, I had a letter from their solicitor saying they were making an urgent request for the judgement to be set aside. My question is, do you think the judge will set the judgement aside after such a lack of response during the process?
Matt - 22-Nov-16 @ 5:08 AM
I had been in abusive relationship for two years which ended unceremoniously when he kicked me out of our rented house three days after my mum was diagnosed with terminal cancer in New Zealand. The week before he'd pushed me down the stairs and the police interviewed him, he admitted to the first push but not the second and they said it was his word against mine. He had been out of work for three months and I had been paying the rent SINGLEHANDEDLY he was back in work three weeks when he kicked me out. My mum arrived back in the UK I got my things and moved in with her to be her cater. He maliciously reported me to the police for trespassing when I had paid the rent and my name was on the lease, again to say Id stolen my Christmas present and again to say I stole another Christmas present. The police didn't charge him but interviewed me. He then blackmailed me into loaning him my £600 deposit so he could stay on in the house or I wouldn't of got my £800 rent back that I paid in advance. I managed to get him to sign a personal loan agreement before I allowed this transfer to happen. I tried to move on and took on a shop expecting him to pay the agreed monthly amount he didn't! I have fallen to pieces and been signed off sick. I have now uncovered more and more deception £1200 he said he paid as deposit on my car, claims he's made on behalf of me and an attempt to get a payday loan with me as guarantor. I have had a letter from my GP confirming my domestic abuse I am claiming sick so entitled to legal aid but can't find a solicitor to help me with civil litigation using legal aid. I don't want to see him he's a master manipulator I need help?
Mug - 22-Aug-16 @ 4:35 PM
My son's phone was damaged in school, a girl thought it was be funny to come up behind him and start shaking him while he was drinking. He phone was in his blazer pocket and is now water damaged.
Is it possible to put in a claim against her parents? ( as she is under 18)
Thank in advance
Eva - 15-Jul-16 @ 7:22 PM
Mattrugby - Your Question:
My ex owes me money about £900 quid for holidays,spening money etc and other things like paying for xmas presents.i used to pay for everythink.and he was ment to pay me back.but never did.we spilt just over 2months ago.and he said he would still pay me back.but two months later nothing. We also borrowed money of my mum.this was over two yrs ago.and he never paid a penny.he aggreed to pay her £500.00 after we spilt.which was no where near the amount we borrowed.but still hasnt paid her.and now leaves me to pay her the costs.have I got a leg to said on.we have nothing in writing.i guess I only have proof that I paid for things on my debt card.i also lost money from the deposit on our home.he said he would fix the guttering he broke.and he never did.so I lost £105 quid there too.any help on what to do next and if its worth the stress would be great please.many thanks
Unless you can prove that your ex said he would pay you back then it is difficult to take this to court. You have to be able to prove that the money owed was not a gift.
CourtroomAdvice - 10-Jun-16 @ 12:10 PM
My ex owes me money about £900 quid for holidays,spening money etc and other things like paying for xmas presents..i used to pay for everythink..and he was ment to pay me back..but never did..we spilt just over 2months ago..and he said he would still pay me back..but two months later nothing. We also borrowed money of my mum...this was over two yrs ago..and he never paid a penny..he aggreed to pay her £500.00 after we spilt.which was no where near the amount we borrowed..but still hasnt paid her..and now leaves me to pay her the costs.have i got a leg to said on..we have nothing in writing..i guess i only have proof that i paid for things on my debt card..i also lost money from the deposit on our home..he said he would fix the guttering he broke.and he never did..so i lost £105 quid there too..any help on what to do next and if its worth the stress would be great please.many thanks
Mattrugby - 9-Jun-16 @ 3:01 PM
thejoker - Your Question:
My car was damaged by revellers from a rave , pictures were taken and the police were called, I contacted the manager of the rave we said he'd help me get my property repaired but 8months later im still waiting - iv told him I will take legal action against him and he has suddenly given me some information about the company who put on the rave, but that's allI have 2 witnesses who said they saw my car before and after the revellers appeared stating the damage was done by them.All I want is my property repaired , its about 400 for the work to be done, but ,due to the car being off road I have incurred extra bills for not being able to use it. What course do you suggest please.Many thanks.
I would advise that you seek some legal advice on this with the view of taking the matter to the small claims court. You can also see how to go through the small claims procedure via the CAB link here. I also advise you to keep all the correspondence you have from the company to re-inforce/back up your case.
CourtroomAdvice - 3-Jun-16 @ 9:47 AM
my car was damaged by revellers from a rave , pictures were taken and the police were called, I contacted the manager of the rave we said he'd help me get my property repaired but 8months later im still waiting - iv told him Iwill take legal action against him and he has suddenly given me some information about the company who put on the rave, but that's all
I have 2 witnesses who said they saw my car before and after the revellers appeared stating the damage was done by them.
All I want is my property repaired , its about 400 for the work to be done, but ,due to the car being off road I have incurred extra bills for not being able to use it. What course do you suggest please .
thejoker - 2-Jun-16 @ 8:40 AM
Hello, my flatmate from 2014 has got in touch out of the blue. Claiming I owe him money for a gas bill which was in his name and settled 2 years ago, for which I gave him cash.
He is threatening to take me to court for £120.
We were evicted from the flat, because he failed to pay rent to the landlord for over 3 months. So I would not be surprise if he is just trying to get money out of me with threats.
Does he have a valid claim? Can he take this to the small claims court?
Laura - 27-May-16 @ 12:56 PM
I am a beauty therapist and was looking for a job in a salon. I found one and agreed to join on an email but did not sign any contract or offer letter. Due to health reasons (pregnancy) I could not join and missed on communicating it to the employer about not coming to work. Now, I have received a small claim £250 because there were cancelled appointments. I have been asking for proof of monetary loss as I don't understand how cancelled appointments translates into monetary loss. I haven't received any proofs or explanation around it. Also. I have been trying to explain him that they would have to pay me for the work if I did join them so it is not appropriate to simply list the cost of cancelled appointments but they have just raised the claim now without giving me any explanation. I don't know how to take this further as n whether I should file my defense or not. Also, would like to know if I can ask for proof of monetary loss formally by any court form or something. Please Advice!
Shi - 25-May-16 @ 5:29 PM
I am sure i know what i am doing,its the nature of the claim,the judge has final say on how much,so what amount do i claim for on application to court,what my landlord done to myself and my family was terrifying,landlord harassed me for 3/4 years,defamated against me,deprivation,financially broke,my daughters left me,my 12 year old son was having to live in that enviroment it was interfereing with his exams,the house was in very bad disrepair,shortfall was being paid,i never missed payment of court order,police were there it was what words cant explain,i have very strong evidence against the landlord so how much do i put on claim form?
Rooster - 23-Apr-16 @ 5:42 PM
I want to make a claim against someone who owes me money but Im afraid that the forms will show my address and of repercussions can I ask my address is not shown ?
Sj - 4-Feb-16 @ 11:38 AM
Mouse - 29-Jul-15 @ 1:08 PM
That happened to my case, the claimant was 3 months behind on the court schedule, I conformed 100% sending letters to the court at each stage of the schedule. The judge sent a strike out order to the claimant, giving them 14 days to comply, they did 4 hours before the deadline. So I asked for the CMC "case management conference" to be adjourned because I had 14 days to put my defence in which took us passed the original date.What is wrong they issue a schedule then if if not conformed to they they give extra time, this should never happen. Still waiting for the new CMC date.
What was really wrong they had over 3 months to put they claim in e.g finding "witnesses" I got 14 days to put the defence in. vary wrong.
deniss - 17-Nov-15 @ 8:18 AM
Can I contact the claimant's witness if i feel they can help with my case, I'm defending in the CC.
Deniss - 17-Nov-15 @ 8:00 AM
Mouse .... Can you tell me what happened with your case as we are in the same position now and due in court next week!
The dogsbody - 17-Aug-15 @ 9:18 PM
I'm a defendant in a small claims , the claimant hasn't done the witness statement as the judge advised them to d on a set date , what will happen to them now ,I've made the court aware of this issue
Mouse - 29-Jul-15 @ 1:08 PM
Will it be her version of events against mine, the info on companies house shows she hadn't filed any accounts and is due to file them in 2016. Can she say she has no money to pay me.